Group on Measurement Invariance and Analysis of Change (GEIMAC), Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, Roles They primarily worked in clinical practice (mean 46.3% of their time), followed by research (28.1%), teaching and training (16.9%), management (7.8%), and other tasks (0.9%). This includes exposure to viruses or toxins in utero, premature labor, low birth weight, and lack of oxygen during birth.2 Higher rates of schizophrenia are found in urban areas, among low-income families, where income inequality is significant.3, Researchers have not pinpointed a single gene that leads to the development of schizophrenia; many genes are thought to play a role. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library. 0000013015 00000 n endstream endobj 166 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[21 111]/Length 27/Size 132/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream Citation: Nuño L, Guilera G, Coenen M, Rojo E, Gómez-Benito J, Barrios M (2019) Functioning in schizophrenia from the perspective of psychologists: A worldwide study. Funding: This work was supported by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [grant PSI2015–67984-R], and by the Agency for the Management of University and Research Grants of the Government of Catalonia [grant 2017SGR1681]. From the experts’ answers in round one, a total of 7,526 concepts were extracted and linked to 412 ICF categories (219 second-level, 189 third-level, and 4 fourth-level). This is consistent with the more biomedical perspective of psychiatrists. It affects almost all areas of the person’s life; family, employment, training, health, personal relationships… Schizophrenia Causes 1-History of schizophrenia In 1809, John Hassam described in Madness and Melancholy a form of dementia as follows: They […] Participants were sent an e-mail with a link to the survey homepage and instructions (i.e., to list all the aspects they considered to be relevant when assessing and/or treating individuals with schizophrenia). Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions. In the third round, consensus (i.e., agreement of at least 75%) was reached for 76 ICF categories and 28 Personal factors. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/schizophrenia/index.shtml Accessed May 13, 2019. Regarding Personal factors, which are not classified in the ICF, 33 concepts were presented to the experts, and 28 of these yielded consensus (see S5 Table). 0000005610 00000 n This validation study highlights the functioning-related issues that psychologists encounter in their work with individuals with schizophrenia and considers the extent to which these aspects are covered by the ICF Core Sets for schizophrenia. This journal evolved into the following structure: description of personal pain body, moving forward with transformations, and … We conducted a three-round worldwide Delphi study by means of an e-mail survey. As I developed solutions to my pain body, the structure of the psychological causes of my paranoid schizophrenia became clear. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to help individuals with this health condition, and psychological interventions are considered a priority. Validation, • Disruptions in brain structures, brain function, and brain chemistry. Jump to: As this category also reached consensus in the validation study from the perspective of psychiatrists it clearly reflects a problem area for these patients [28,29], and therefore its exclusion from the ICF-CS for schizophrenia should be reconsidered. The primary limitation of the study concerns the representativeness of the panel of experts. Some studies indicate an imbalance between the 2 may be the basis of the problem. Agreement of 75% or higher was reached for 75.3% of the categories included in the Comprehensive ICF-CS for schizophrenia and for all the categories in the Brief version. Complications during pregnancy or birth are linked to schizophrenia. Each ICF-CS comprises a selection of ICF categories that are considered essential for describing the functioning of a person living with the corresponding health condition. 0000006043 00000 n Some of the categories that achieved higher consensus refer to cognitive functions, such as b164 Higher-level cognitive functions. Unfortunately there is no concrete evidence to point toward one simple cause. 132 36 At the 54th World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001 the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was officially endorsed (resolution WHA 54.21) by all 191 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability [11]. 0000021982 00000 n No, Is the Subject Area "Cognitive psychology" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217936.g001. For each category, they were asked to indicate whether it was relevant from their perspective as a psychologist to the assessment and/or treatment of individuals with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia have been reported to have abnormities in brain structure and function [1,4]. Of these, the ambiguous categories (i.e., those selected by more than 50% but less than 75% of the expert panel) mainly belong to chapter d6 Domestic life (e.g., d640 Doing housework) or are related to employment (e.g., d855 Non-remunerative employment). We know that schizophrenia has genetic causes, since the most significant risk factor is having a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Software,

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